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### Which is greater? The number of atoms in the universe or the number of chess moves? ^{[1]}

Which is greater? The number of atoms in the universe or the number of chess moves?. We explore AI’s mind blowing processing ability, from winning chess to finding new galaxies.

The theory uses mathematics to understand the rules governing the transmission of messages through communication systems, applicable to everything from computer code, speech and music, to the dancing of bees. Using maths and logic to understand the world around him, it wasn’t long before Shannon began to wonder if a computer could beat a human at games, such as chess

That did not happen until 1996 when DeepBlue beat Gary Kasparov. The following year the improved DeepBlue beat him 31/2-21/2.

### How do draws work? ^{[2]}

While most of the ways to win or lose a chess game are clear, draws can be a little complicated. Below are all the different ways a game can end with a draw.

Article: What is Stalemate in Chess | Definition + Examples. There are cases where one player has more pieces than the opponent toward the end of the game

The game is declared a draw whenever both sides do not have the “sufficient material” to force a checkmate.. What happens if, for example, white has all the pieces and black has just one king but white runs out of time? In this case, since the player with the black pieces can not checkmate with just the king, the game is also declared drawn

### Infinite possibilities in a game of chess? – Chess Forums ^{[3]}

no, because of the 50-move rule, there is a limit to the number of possible moves in a game. the possibilities for each number of moves has to be finite, because there are only 32 pieces and 64 squares

Say you have two balloons and a pipe between them that allow a gas to go from one balloon to the other.. If you have one molecule, the chance that this molecule is in the left balloon is 1/2

That’s a huge number, now consider that you could have two gigantic balloons with millions of moles inside…. There could be, depending on the size of the balloon

### Draw (chess) ^{[4]}

In chess, there are a number of ways that a game can end in a draw, neither player winning. Draws are codified by various rules of chess including stalemate (when the player to move is not in check but has no legal move), threefold repetition (when the same position occurs three times with the same player to move), and the fifty-move rule (when the last fifty successive moves made by both players contain no capture or pawn move)

Unless specific tournament rules forbid it, players may agree to a draw at any time. Ethical considerations may make a draw uncustomary in situations where at least one player has a reasonable chance of winning

In the 19th century, some tournaments, notably London 1883, required that drawn games be replayed; however, this was found to cause organizational problems due to the backlog. It is now standard practice to score a decisive game as one point to the winner, and a draw as a half point to each player.

### How Many Possible Moves Are There In Chess? ^{[5]}

It is a beloved and complex board game that has been around for at least 1500 years and has stood the test of time. We are still seeing new moves being played which are remarkable and exciting for enthusiasts who share a passion for this intricate sport.

There are over 9 million variations after just 3 moves each, 288 billion different possible positions after 4 moves each, and 318,000,000,000 ways to play just the first 4 moves. In a whole Chess game, There are more possible iterations of chess games than there are atoms in the observable universe.

The number is based on an average of about 10^3 possibilities for a pair of moves in an average game which consist of 40 moves.. This means the number of possible moves, variations, and positions in Chess is not infinite like many will just default to that conclusion in casual conversation, but it’s pretty close to being infinite.

### Shannon number ^{[6]}

The Shannon number, named after the American mathematician Claude Shannon, is a conservative lower bound of the game-tree complexity of chess of 10120, based on an average of about 103 possibilities for a pair of moves consisting of a move for White followed by a move for Black, and a typical game lasting about 40 such pairs of moves.. Shannon showed a calculation for the lower bound of the game-tree complexity of chess, resulting in about 10120 possible games, to demonstrate the impracticality of solving chess by brute force, in his 1950 paper “Programming a Computer for Playing Chess”.[1] (This influential paper introduced the field of computer chess.)

This includes some illegal positions (e.g., pawns on the first rank, both kings in check) and excludes legal positions following captures and promotions.. |Number of plies (half-moves)||Number of possible games[2]||Number of checkmates[3]|

After each player has moved a piece 5 times each (10 ply) there are 69,352,859,712,417 possible games that could have been played.. Taking Shannon’s numbers into account, Victor Allis calculated an upper bound of 5×1052 for the number of positions, and estimated the true number to be about 1050.[4] Recent results[5] improve that estimate, by proving an upper bound of 8.7×1045, and showing[6][7] an upper bound 4×1037 in the absence of promotions.

### Chess Rules ^{[7]}

The above position shows three immobile Pawns, “blocked” Pawns: g3, g4, and f7. Pawn g3 is blocked by g4 because the Pawn does not capture straight ahead but diagonally.

The Pawn d4 has two possible moves: to advance to d5 or to capture e5. The Pawn c3 has only one possible move: to advance to c4.

This rule made the game more lively, and therefore the Chess world accepted it over time. For instance, Pawn a2 may advance to a3 or to a4 in one move.

### How Many Moves Do Typical Chess Games Have? An Analysis ^{[8]}

How Many Moves Do Typical Chess Games Have? An Analysis. Chess games last for a very long time, this is the truth that you will understand after watching a couple of chess tournaments (or games).

It must be a lot for sure, and I think this is the answer:. Typical chess games last up to 30 moves, the majority of chess players don’t last until the endgame so the average moves per game becomes diluted

I have tried looking for statistics or some sort that would really give us the whole picture, however, there is no formal study yet on this. However, from my experience, I know the average moves of most chess games (anecdotally).

### Chess Moves – The Basic Rules of Chess for Kids – Chessmatec ^{[9]}

Each Chess Piece can move in a different way and direction. The Rook is another powerful piece that can move in a straight line forwards and backwards through any square on the board that isn’t occupied by another piece

The Bishop moves in a way that is opposite to the Rook – he can only move diagonally and step on any square that isn’t taken up by another piece. If a Bishop starts the game on a Black square, he will only be able to step on Black squares for the rest of the game, and the same goes for a Bishop that starts the game on a White square

The Queen, in the same way as the King, can move in every direction – horizontally, vertically and diagonally. Unlike the King, however, the Queen can move in a straight line all the way to the other side of the board, stepping on every square that isn’t taken up by another piece – making her the most powerful piece in the game of Chess! The Queen can capture a piece by landing directly on the other player’s square.

### How the Computer Beat the Go Master ^{[10]}

As I write this column, a computer program called AlphaGo is beating the professional go player Lee Sedol at a highly publicized tournament in Seoul. Sedol is among the top three players in the world, having attained the highest rank of nine dan

With this defeat, computers have bettered people in the last of the classical board games, a game known for both depth and simplicity. The methods underlying AlphaGo, and its recent victory, have startling implications for the future of machine intelligence.

Over a period of 10 years a dedicated team of hardware and software engineers, eventually hired by IBM, built and programmed a special-purpose supercomputer, named Deep Blue, that did one thing and one thing only—play chess by evaluating 200 million board positions per second. In a widely expected development, the IBM team challenged then reigning world chess champion Garry Kasparov

### Has every possible chess game been played? ^{[11]}

In the past 500 years of modern chess, have we even come close to playing all iterations of the game?. The modern game of chess is around 500 years old, so to put a rough upper limit on the total number of games played so far, let’s assume around one per cent of people who have lived since then have played a different game of chess every day for 50 years

That sounds a lot but each move in chess opens up around 38 legal new moves, and a typical chess match consists of around 40 or so moves per player. So the total number of moves possible is around 38 to the power 80, which works out at a staggering 10 to the power 126 – far larger than the number of particles in the visible Universe

Subscribe to BBC Focus magazine for fascinating new Q&As every month and follow @sciencefocusQA on Twitter for your daily dose of fun science facts.. Robert is a science writer and visiting professor of science at Aston University.

### How many chess moves are there? ^{[12]}

Almost nothing looks more orderly than chess pieces before a match starts. The first move, however, begins a spiral into chaos

After the second pair of turns, there are 197,742 possible games, and after three moves, 121 million.. The number of possible chess moves has been estimated to be almost infinite

Help make Alexa smarter and share your knowledge with the worldLEARN MORE. Help make Alexa smarter and share your knowledge with the worldLEARN MORE

### Chess Rules: A Quick Summary of the Rules of Chess ^{[13]}

So you now have your chess set and you’re ready to go. One Problem: You don’t know the rules yet! Never fear, we have included the basics of the gameplay below

Chess is one of the oldest and most popular board games in the world. Most Believe the origins of chess begin in either India or Asia many thousands of years ago

Chess rules are surprisingly easy to learn, yet can take a lifetime of hard work to master!. The King is the most important piece on the chessboard

### How Many Moves Until Stalemate? – Maroon Chess ^{[14]}

Stalemate is an incident in chess that happens to players of all levels. The player who has the winning advantage should avoid this at all cost, whereas the player on the losing end must find a clever way to make this happen.

Stalemate in chess is when one side has no legal moves left in the position, but the king is NOT under attack. There is no particular number of moves until stalemate

However, the game ends in a draw if neither side can make progress in under 50 moves. By progress, we mean the advance of a pawn, or capturing of a piece.

### How the Chess Pieces Move ^{[15]}

Easy to learn, hard to master – such is the beauty of chess! People of all walks of life have enjoyed this classic game for centuries, in large part because the rules are so simple, yet the possibilities are endless. In the first article of a series teaching you how to play the royal game, you’ll learn how the pieces move

The king, marked with a cross-bearing crown, can move in any direction one square. It can move horizontally, vertically, or diagonally (see the diagram above).

This is true for all of your pieces and pawns in fact: they cannot occupy the same square as another. They can take the squares of your opponent’s pieces, however; this is called “capturing.” To capture a piece, you simply replace it with your own and remove the opponent’s piece from the board.

### How Many Chess Games Are Possible? This Will Blow Your Mind! ^{[16]}

Have you ever wondered how many games of chess can be possibly played on a chessboard? Well, according to major sources, there is a popular fact that the number of games of chess is greater than the number of atoms there are in the observable universe. This number of games is known as Shannon’s number, and later in this article you will see how it was worked out

With that said let’s jump right in and find what is this Shannon’s number.. How Many Chess Games Are Possible – Shannon’s Number Explained

In that paper he came up with an estimate that the number of games of chess would be 10120 . That actually beats the number of atoms in the known universe which is estimated to be 1078 to 1082 atoms

### How Many Moves Do Chess Players Think Ahead? ^{[17]}

Most people know that chess depends upon players being able to think ahead and predict their opponent’s moves to win, but how many moves can chess players actually think ahead? As with any sport, chess players of greater skill have been shown to possess the ability to think many moves ahead, sometimes up to a dozen or more. However, in most cases, even chess grandmasters tend to think ahead in smaller intervals to keep the game from getting too complex

How Many Moves Do Average Chess Players Think Ahead?. The standard for what makes a novice chess player is usually determined by the Elo Rating System

A novice chess player usually falls within the five lower classes of the Elo System, Classes A to E, which starts with Class E (1000-1199) at the low end and ends with Class A (1800-1999) at the high end.. Novice to average chess players are often known for their ability to see anywhere from one to three moves ahead in a chess game

### FYI: How Many Different Ways Can a Chess Game Unfold? ^{[18]}

Almost nothing looks more orderly than chess pieces before a match starts. The first move, however, begins a spiral into chaos

After the second pair of turns, there are 197,742 possible games, and after three moves, 121 million. At every turn, players chart a progressively more distinctive path, and each game evolves into one that has probably never been played before.

using games, “The possible number of chess games is so huge that no one will invest the effort to calculate the exact number.” Some have estimated it at around 10100,000. Out of those, 10120 games are “typical”: about 40 moves long with an average of 30 choices per move.

### Chess Pieces (How Many Pieces Are There, What Are Their Names, And How Do They Move?) ^{[19]}

There are a total number of 32 pieces on the board.. White and black both start the game with the following pieces:

In general, pawns can only move forward one square at a time.. When a pawn reaches the end of the board, it can decide to become either a Queen, Knight, Rook, or Bishop

After its first move, a pawn can only move one square at a time.. When a pawn captures a piece, it does so by moving diagonally (not forward).

### Number Of Moves To Win In Chess ^{[20]}

“Winning isn’t everything, it’s the only thing.” -Vince Lombardi. Do you like to secure victory over your opponent no matter who he/she is? Does the thrill of winning a match or game bring you unparalleled contentment? If so, you’re not alone!

How’s that? Well, after winning something, testosterone increases which activates the chemical messenger and increases dopamine. In turn, dopamine hits the brain’s reward network, which causes a person to feel much better about themselves.

One good thing about when we fail is that we hate the feeling that we are experiencing so much that we will do everything we can to ensure victory the next.. Preparing yourself to win sets you up for victory no matter which discipline, activity, or sport you participate in.

### Chess Rules ^{[21]}

Chess is played on a square board of eight rows (called ranks and denoted with numbers 1 to 8) and eight columns (called files and denoted with letters a to h) of squares. The colors of the sixty-four squares alternate between light and dark, and are referred to as “light squares” and “dark squares”

Each player begins the game with sixteen pieces: each player’s pieces comprise one king, one queen, two rooks, two bishops, two knights and eight pawns. One player, referred to as White, controls the white pieces and the other player, Black, controls the black pieces; White is always the first player to move

The players alternate moving one piece at a time (with the exception of castling, when two pieces are moved at the same time). Pieces are moved to either an unoccupied square, or one occupied by an opponent’s piece, capturing it and removing it from play

### The United States Chess Federation ^{[22]}

Special Moves- Castling, Pawn Promotion, and En Passant. When you set up the board, remember the following things:

Many movies, T.V shows, and even art exhibits with chess sets get this wrong.. Queen on her color! If you are White the queen should be on a White square

The letters on the bottom (a-h) of the board correspond to files. The numbers on the side of the board refer to ranks (1-8)

### Dive into anything ^{[23]}

How many moves ahead do you usually see when you play chess?. I’m only 1400, but the aswer you’re gonna get from any experienced player is: It depends

You’re not a computer, so you can’t create a complete game-tree in your head, consequently your “pruning algorithm” ought to be quite harsh (i.e. you will disregard most lines based on positional ideas).

What “pretty deep” means obviously depends on your skill level. Study tactics, endgames and play chess, you will improve if done systematically.

### Rules of Chess: The 50 Moves Rule ^{[24]}

If the king is your last piece, is there a number of moves that the opponent has to checkmate you?. Chess has no rule that sets a specific limit on how many moves your opponent has to checkmate you after you are down to just a king

If each player makes 50 moves without moving a pawn or capturing a piece, the next player to move may claim a draw.. Although this rule does not start its countdown when a king is bared, it becomes more of a going concern when a player has been reduced to a bare king

If there are also no pawns left in the game, then it’s very likely that no future moves will reset the countdown from the last capture or pawn move. In that case, the 50 moves rule will set a fixed cap on how many moves are left in the game

### ChessWizards ^{[25]}

In a chess tournament, it is worth a half point, so it is a much more preferable outcome than a big fat zero when you lose.. Who is winning this game? If you answered, “No one!” then you’ve already figured out this puzzle

White Promotes to a Queen, and what does Black do? Capture it, of course. Can either team with just a King? No way! This is just one example of the Stalemate called Insufficient Material

The fewest pieces possible to do this are a King and a Rook. If you just have a King and a Bishop or Knight left – sorry, you’re out of luck

### How Many Ways Are There to Play the First Four Moves in a Chess Game? ^{[26]}

Chess is one of the most popular and perhaps one of the oldest board games in the world. Although experts have not reached a consensus on the origins of chess, its predecessor is believed to have most likely emerged as a war game in India in the 6th century.

Analysis of chess and the possibilities of each move have long been of interest for mathematicians and others. Although the number of possibilities for an entire game of chess are too many to count, it is calculated that there are 318,979,564,000 possible combinations for just the first four moves

– The predecessor of chess, “chaturanga”, is also the predecessor of other Asian strategy games like xiangqi, shogi, and makruk.. – “Deep Blue” was the first computer to defeat a human chess champion in a chess tournament in 1997.

### House Of Staunton ^{[27]}

There are three special moves that can sometimes be performed in chess.. The special move castling allows a player to legally break three of the basic movement rules of chess! Normally, a player moves a king only one square, but when castling, it can move two

And finally, a player normally moves one piece on their turn, but when castling, the player moves both their king and rook.. To castle, a player first moves the king two squares to left or right, and then the rook on that side to the adjacent square on the opposite side of the king.

There are no pieces between the king and rook; and,. Castling does not cause the king to move out of check, through check, or into check.

### Sources

- https://www.liverpoolmuseums.org.uk/stories/which-greater-number-of-atoms-universe-or-number-of-chess-moves#:~:text=This%20is%20the%20Shannon%20Number,dramatically%20to%201040%20moves.
- https://support.chess.com/article/352-how-do-draws-work#:~:text=50%20move%20rule&text=The%20longest%20chess%20game%20ever,50%20move%20limit%20is%20reached.
- https://www.chess.com/forum/view/general/infinite-possibilities-in-a-game-of-chess#:~:text=no%2C%20because%20of%20the%2050,possible%20chess%20games%20is%20finite.
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Draw_(chess)#:~:text=Seventy%2Dfive%2Dmove%20rule%20%E2%80%93,a%20checkmate%2C%20the%20checkmate%20stands.
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